Senin, 11 April 2011

  1. Sipet / blowpipe. Is the main weapon Dayak tribe. The shape is round and 2-3 cm in diameter, length 1.5 to 2.5 meters, the middle-middle hole with a hole diameter ¼ - ¾ cm which is used to include children blowpipe (Damek). The tip of a spear made ​​of mountain stone tied with rattan and wicker have been on. Children chopsticks called damek, and telep is where children blowpipe.
  2. Lonjo / Spear. Made of iron and placed or tied with a woven rattan and stemmed from bamboo or hardwood.
  3. Telawang / Shield. Made of lightweight wood, but the clay. Length of 1-2 meters with a width of 30-50 cm. The outside given the carving or painting and has a specific meaning. Next to the common place of handles.
  4.  Saber. Is the main weapon and a weapon that is considered sacred hereditary. The shape is long and there is always a good sign carved in the form of inlay and carving just ordinary. Saber mountain made ​​of stone, carved, engraved with gold / silver / copper and decorated with bird feathers or human hair. Saber has the original name of the so-called "Saber Threshold Birang Bitang Pono Adjunct Kajau", are goods that have a religious value, as well cared for by their owners. Rocks that are often used in the manufacture of Saber in near past, namely: Sanaman Mantikei Stone, Stone or stone Mujat Tengger, Stone Montalat.
  5. Dohong. This weapon is a kind of dagger, but bigger and sharper side contiguous. Upper reaches of the horn and scabbard made ​​of wood. Weapons may only be worn by chiefs, Demat, Basir. 


Almost all people except Dayak Dayak Dayak forgiveness and Meratus, has a long house in the past. Long house trailer is a combination or single houses of the Dayak people in one village. Long house built for unity or strength of the villagers is concentrated, when faced with attacks from outside the village or outside the group (Kayau) or wild animal attacks. Longhouse in houses on stilts built in a way that extends. All material long house made of hard wood such as ironwood or purchase. Starting from the shingle (wooden roof), pole, frame, wall, floor to the stairs. Our times remaining longhouses have very little. Generally longhouse residents in unloading because tenants have chosen to build a single dwelling house. Dayak Punan Dayak is the oldest tribes inhabiting Borneo. Based on measured data of carbon contained in fossil skeleton ever found in the Niah Cave Sarawak Malaysia [8] [9] note that the skull is very similar to the Dayak Punan skull has reached 40,000 years old. So with the assumption that the skull is actually the skull Dayak forgiveness, then it is clear that the Dayak Punan tribe is one of the ancestors of Nations after assimilating with Borneo Dayak tribe Dayak ancestors who came from Yunnan. By knowing how her parents the presence of Dayak Punan in Borneo (that they came long before human civilization the planet knows metal), it is understandable if they lack the village civilization and prefer the nomadic ways of life, so they built makeshift homes (generally only huts). Yet even today only a handful of forgiveness Dayak people are still happy to live nomadic, while the majority have built settlements like other Dayak community. In the Dayak Meratus (Hill) in their homes know called Hall. The term Dayak Bukit according Hairus Salim from the local vocabulary in these areas the term "hill" means "the bottom of a tree" aka the base of the tree, which also means "person or group of persons or clumps of the first family is the origin of other people" . Hill said that means "base" shows clearly that their origin stems from Banua hill in West Kalimantan, Bukit term so basically this is not bearti Hill / mountain, just that was already in interpret the meaning of the mountain by outsiders. Bukit Dayak is a society that still holds the old Banjar cultural customs. Tribe Banjar itself if the note of the language is a mixture of languages ​​Biaju Dayak, Dayak Maanyan, Javanese and Bahasa Dayak Kendayan, but by a small group of fanatic Banjar society stated that their ancestors were of Sumatran Malay it can be understood as a result of the influence of Islam ( in the past that the Islamic religion by religion called Dayaks in Malay). If we trace back the history of the formation of Banjar tribes who originated Since the Islamic kingdom of Banjar, there will we know that the king who embraced Islam Banjarmasin first is Suriansyah prince (a mulatto Java-Tamil), He was appointed as king by twelve people Demat Dayak Ngaju and governor Still, who said as a Patih wither. Please be in mind and understand that Prince Suriansyah itself at that time was never ordered for people which consist of people Biaju, Maanyan people, people who thought Kendayan malay (remember at that time the term tribe Kendayan / Kannayatn itself has not been established [10], and as has been mentioned above that the name of one Banua West Kalimantan Dayak Kendayan Banua hill is so clear that the descendants of Dayak communities Banua Kendayan derived from this hill, known as the Dayak Bukit / Meratus in southern Kalimantan) [11]. and a small group of Java to change the name of his tribe. Patih malay? In the history to know that the governor first degree is a degree or a majority of important people or the kings of West Kalimantan Dayak. In the Sumatran governor himself did not have title. In the past the period where traditional beliefs (Kaharingan), Kayau culture and home culture Length (Culture and Housing Length Kayau appear simultaneously purpose longhouse is made for the power is concentrated to face kayau) is not known by the Dayak. Dayak Kendayan sailors have been along the beaches of the island both to the north and south. Dayak Kendayan Sailors who came to northern Borneo to build settlements in the area east of Sarawak and Brunei today, his descendants known as the Dayak tribe Kedayan. while that along the coast to the south borneo build settlements in the midst of Dayak Biaju / Ngaju, people are still wearing Kendayan Dayak Dayak Languages ​​Kendayan. Because the language is similar to Dayak kendayan Malay language, by people Ngaju at about the Malays (remember at that time the term Kendayan / Kannayatn itself has not been established). And Patih There is only one Kendayan Dayak leaders in the land of shoreline in the area. So basically people are defined as Ngaju wither by none other that is not a descendant of the sailors or Dayak Kendayan nomads who did not return. And develop indigenous Dayak traditions and language Kendayan which until now can be seen in the offspring who did not want to embrace Islam, the Dayak tribe called Meratus / Hill. And even the naming of a large river in Central Kalimantan Dayak community are often called stem Biaju Biaju Small, with the name of the Kapuas river, is also the name of the granting by the sailors or the nomads Dayak Kendayan (for the first time they came, the river name is unknown by them), just as the name of great rivers in the region of origin of Kapuas River in West Kalimantan. The point is that the tribe Banjar is a mulatto descendants of Dayak Dayak Kendayan with Biaju, Maanyan Dayak and Javanese migrants slightly.


At the present time a unique culture of the Dayak people who can only be witnessed on the Dayak people Stanmenras / clump Apokayan (Kenyah, Kayan and Bahau) and a bit of Dayak Iban and Dayak Punan only, while on the Dayak Others have not been found. Are other Dayak Society does not have this culture? To be honest almost all sub-ethnic Dayaks in the past have only just this tradition has long been left behind. Most of this tradition be abandoned since the arrival of an outsider to Borneo, ie since the arrival of Indian sailors and Arabic as well as Chinese or other ethnic Indonesia to Borneo, with reason to feel ashamed. but others leave this culture in the early days of Dutch colonial rule until the days of Japanese occupation. In the Dayak people who berdialek Banyadu Kendayan for example, from the stories of parents in the village district Tititareng Menyuke darit mentioned that in the Japanese occupation there are a grandmother who maintain Ear length. Sepeninggalan Grandma was then ended the long-term culture of the Dayak ear Banyadu. There is one interesting thing that might be the reason why people are still loyal Apokayan Dayak families maintain the culture of this long ears, if we notice that most indigenous elders or elder person or persons important in the social strata of indigenous Dayak people of this apokayan family is the most women. Women generally tend to be very firm known for maintaining custom or tradition that developed in the community than men, especially if the tradition is already considered part of the customs that must be preserved, then it certainly will be maintained, and especially if the person is important that these women generally always recommend that women remain elongate ear. But even so, over the development period it lately seems to already be in a critical condition in which many women are the Dayak family apokayan long left ear culture in a way to cut it.


Tattoo on the Dayak community in the past is a physical symbol that directly shows the strata of a person in society. Both men and women alike have tattoos. While the motives of tattoo pictures as well adapted to the prevailing social strata in society. Figure tattoos among ordinary people is different with important people like the Chief, the Baliatn, the Demat and the Commander of the war. This culture of our times seems to also have a lot left out, for various reasons, although a lot of the Dayak-conscious generation to continue to develop it.

Kayau words mean as the head hunting community leaders who become enemies, where the head of the quarry will be used in rituals Notokng (The term Dayak Kendayan). So basically is a Kayau not a war between tribes such as the war in the riots that have occurred in Kalimantan, some time ago, that his victims indiscriminately whether an ordinary or an effect on the enemy. Kayau not haphazardly done, as well as enemy characters in the drill, all carefully considered by management. Meanwhile, the number of troops that will be on duty Kayau on the field at least seven people. Kayau generally done in the past against the enemy figures who are most different sub-ethnic Dayak him. Kayau events recorded history and quite famous is the event Kayau Head of the kingdom of King Patih Gumantar Mempawah (Kingdom Dayak Kendayan) West Kalimantan Dayak Kayau forces Biaju / Ngaju Central Kalimantan, although the story circulating among the Dayak Kendayan our times mentions that the name Biaju This often say as Dayak Bidayuh Sungkung, and this is exacerbated by the authors of books about the history of West Kalimantan, which takes for granted the stories in the Community without further explored and even some authors with a trivial mention that this Biaju Dayak has its own island outside simply because hearing Borneo folklore that says that they came wearing Ajong / ship, when in fact an island with Dayak Kendayan just to get to their home areas via rivers and the sea indeed. This happens identified by the prefix word Biaju and Bidayuh who both preceded by the word "Bi" and both had some words sound almost identical (BI-Aju and BI-dAYUh), and whose name must be pretty risky story orally amended . But a very definite and clear words Biaju mentioned explicitly in the story.

   Borneo is an island located in the northern island of Java and west of the island of Sulawesi. Divided into the territory of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Formerly the name of the third largest island in this world is Warunadwipa which means Lord of the Sea Islands. Often called the whole island of Borneo is called Kalimantan, while parts of Indonesia, Malaysia and the region known as Sarawak and Sabah. There are also the sultanate of Brunei. In ancient times, Borneo is the name used by the colonial British and Dutch, while the name used by residents of the island of Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the Indonesian language first, North Borneo North Borneo is the name for (Sabah), but in the sense now of North Borneo is the northern part of East Kalimantan. So in a broad sense includes the whole island of Kalimantan, Borneo, Kalimantan, while in the narrow sense refers only to the territory of Indonesia.


First. Borneo from the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam said that previously a large and wide empire (including Sarawak and Sabah in part because some of Sabah belonged to the sultanate of Sulu, Mindanao. The Portuguese traders called Borneo and is used by the Europeans. [1] In that Nagarakretagama Kakawin written 1365 years old ancient kingdom of Brunei called "Barune", so that some are calling it "Waruna Pura". But the natives call it the Pulo Klemantan.

Second. According to the descriptive Crowfurd Dictionary of the Indian Island (1856), said Kalimantan is the name of a type of mango so that the island of Borneo is the island of mango, but he added that it smells of fairy tales and does not popular.

Third. According to Drs. B. Ch. Chhabra MBRAS journal vol XV Part 3 p. 79 mentions the ancient Indian custom to name places suitable crops such as millet in Sanskrit language yawa so that the island was called yawadwipa known as the island of Java so that by analogy that the island is by the name of Amra-Dwipa Sanskrit or island mango.

Fourth. According to the C. Hose and Mac Dougall stated that the word originated from 6 classes Kalimantan local tribes namely Sea Dayak (Iban), Kayan, Kenyan, Klemantan, Munut, and Punan. In the essay, Natural Man, a Record from Borneo (1926), Hose C. explained that Klemantan is the new name used by the Malays.

Fifth. According to WH Treacher in British Borneo in the journal MBRAS (1889), wild mango unknown in northern Borneo. Anyway Borneo island has never been known as the yield of mango instead of the title may very well Sago Island (island Sago) because the word was the original name Lamantah raw sago.

Sixth. According to Prof. Dr. Slamet Muljana in his book Sriwijaya (LKIS 2006), said Borneo is not the original Malay word but said the loan as well as the Malay word, which originated from India melayu (Malay which means mountain). Kalimantan or Klemantan derived from Sanskrit, Kalamanthana island where the air is very hot or burn (cal [a]: season, time and Manthan [a]: burn). Because the vowel a at time and manthana according to custom does not spoken, then uttered Kalmantan Kalamanthana later called Klemantan or Quallamontan natives who eventually reduced to Borneo.

Other Names.

Kingdom Singasari called "Bakulapura" ie colonies located in southwestern Borneo. Bakula tree in Sanskrit means promontory (mismusops alengi) so Bakulapura get Malay name to "Tanjungpura" shall mean the land / tree island kingdom Tanjungpura promontory that is the name that is often used as the name of the island.

Kingdom of Majapahit in the Nagara Kakawin Kretagama, written in 1365 called "Tanjungnagara" which also include such Saludung Philippines (Manila) and the Sulu Archipelago.

Hikayat Banjar an ancient chronicle of South Kalimantan is the final chapter was written in 1663, but the script Hikayat Banjar is itself derived from the script with a text more ancient Malay kingdom on the Hindu, in it called the island of Borneo to the Malay name of the island "tip Land ". The term tip of this land came under the form of geomorphology of South Kalimantan region in the days of yore in the form of a peninsula formed by a row of Mount Meratus that juts into the sea of ​​Java. This situation is identical to the shape of the tip of the Malay Peninsula of the State of Johor which is often called "Edge of Land" in ancient Malay manuscripts. Peninsula Land is what bersetentangan tip with the territory of Majapahit in East Java which later gained Tanjungnagara name means island-shaped headland / peninsula.

"Nusa Kencana" is the name of the island of Borneo in the Old Javanese texts such as the King Jayabaya Divination at the end of Majapahit on Java land will be occupied by the Japanese people who come from the direction of Nusa Kencana designation for the area that is now the province of South Kalimantan, as proven before crossed over to Java, the Japanese army first time control of the capital of Banjarmasin Kalimantan. Nusa Kencana often described as the Land Affairs Sabrang named as the embodiment of primitive Alengka residence across the Land of the giants in Java. In the Land of Land Dayak Sabrang there is mentioned in the Supreme Fibre Parwa.

"Island of Banjar" designation in the 17th century from the Gowa, Selaparang (Lombok), Sumbawa and Bima because these kingdoms have bilateral relations with the Sultanate of Banjar.

"Big Java" name of Italian explorer Marco Polo.

"Jaba Daje" means "Java in the North (from the island of Madura) Madurese designation of a new island of Borneo in the 20th century.
Kalimantan in the name

SI Kalimantan, fusion of the Unity Youth Marabahan with local youth organizations in South Kalimantan.

Kalimantan Raya, a newspaper published in Banjarmasin by AA Hamidhan on March 5, 1942.

Zuider en Ooster Afdeeling van Borneo, South and East Kalimantan region of South Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan, which ruled until 1942 a resident of capital is Banjarmasin.

North Borneo Federation (English: The North Borneo Federation) a political entity that was proposed by politicians Brunei, Sheikh Azahari bin Sheikh Mahmud. If realized, the territory covers the British colony of Sarawak, Colony of British North Borneo (now known as Sabah), and the British protectorate of Brunei.

North Kalimantan National Army (National Military North Borneo, abbreviated TNKU in Bahasa Melayu) is the military wing which appeared in North Borneo in Brunei during the Revolution.

Early history

Kalimantan Island was in the middle of Southeast Asia because it is a lot of island culture and political influence of the surrounding islands. Around the year 400 the island of Borneo has entered the era of history to be found relics of the kingdom of Kutai inscription Yupa but the development of civilization relatively slower progress than other islands due to geographical constraints and population are small.

In the 14th century Odorico da Pordenone, a Catholic monk for visiting Borneo. Around the year 1362 under the leadership of Majapahit Patih Gajah Mada University to expand its power to the island of Borneo, namely countries: Kapuas, Katingan, Sampit, Ungga City, Town Waringin, Sambas, Lawai, Kadandangan, Landa, Samadang, Tirem, bitterly, Barune, Kalka , Saludung (Maynila), Solot, Sand, Barito, Sawaku, Tabalong, Cape Kutei and Malano remains the most important on the island Tanjungpura. [2]
At the time of the Dutch East Indies, Borneo known as Borneo. This does not mean the name of Borneo are not known. In the letters Tamjidillah Prince of the Kingdom of Banjar in 1857 to the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin he mentions the island of Borneo, not the island. This shows that among the population, more commonly known name of Kalimantan on Borneo name used in the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. Kalimantan name again became popular in around the 1940's.
States Period of the Republic of Indonesia
After taking over Borneo from the hands of Japan, urged the Federal NICA Kalimantan to immediately establish the State of East Kalimantan, Indonesia following the country who have stood. Thus was established the Board of West Kalimantan on 28 October 1946, which became the Special Region of West Kalimantan on May 27, 1947; with the Regional Head, Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak Sultanate with the rank of Major General. Territory consists of 13 kingdoms as autonomous as in the Dutch East Indies era of Sambas, Pontianak, Mempawah, Hedgehog, Kubu, Tayan, Meliau, Sekadau, Sintang, Selimbau, Simpang, Sukadana and Matan.
Prince Mohamed Noor

Great Dayak Council was formed on December 7, 1946, and thereafter on January 8, 1947 established the Board Pagatan, Sea Island Council and the Board Cantung Sampanahan who joined the Federation of East Kalimantan. Then on February 18, 1947 formed the Federation Council of Sand and East Kalimantan, which is finally on August 26, 1947 joined the Board of East Kalimantan. Further Areas of East Kalimantan to East Kalimantan with the Special Region Regional Head, Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit of the Sultanate of Kutai with the rank of Colonel. Banjar area that has caught federal district Banjar Council was finally established on 14 January 1948.

Governor of Government in the government of Indonesia in Yogyakarta, namely Prince Mohamed Noor, send Little Riwut and Hasan Basry in the mission to defend the independence struggle to confront the power of NICA. On May 17, 1949, Lt. Col. Hassan Basry as Governor of Region IV of Defense Army Navy a Proclamation proclaiming Kalimantan Kalimantan whose contents that "Kalimantan" remains as an integral part of the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed on 17 August 1945. Government Military Governor of this effort is a rival to the formation of the Dutch established the Board of Banjar.

In the United States of Indonesia, Kalimantan into several units of-state, namely:

Special Region of West Kalimantan with its capital Pontianak.

Federation of East Kalimantan capital of Samarinda.

Dayak Besar with temporary capital of Banjarmasin.

Banjar area with the capital of Banjarmasin.

Federation of East Kalimantan, with capital of Kotabaru.

Since 1938, Borneo-Netherlands East Indies (Borneo) is a unit of administrative regions under a governor, based in Banjarmasin, and has representatives in Volksrad. Vice Kalimantan in Volksrad:

Prince Muhammad Ali (before 1935) replaced his son,

Prince Mohamed Noor (1935-1939) replaced by,

Mr. Tadjuddin Noor (1939-1945)

Governor of Borneo

Dr. A. Haga (1938-1942), governor of Kegubernuran based in Banjarmasin Borneo

Prince Musa Ardi Kesuma (1942-1945), South Kalimantan and Central Ridzie

Ir. Prince Mohamed Noor (2 September 1945), based in Yogyakarta Kalimantan governor

dr. Moerjani (August 14, 1950), based in Banjarmasin Kalimantan governor

Mas Subarjo (1953-1955), based in Banjarmasin Kalimantan governor

Raden Tumenggung Arya Milono (1955-1957), based in Banjarmasin Kalimantan governor.

Re-establishment of Kalimantan province on August 14, 1950 after the dissolution of the RIS, celebrated as the Day of South Kalimantan Province (formerly called the province of Kalimantan, one of the first province). Until 1956, Borneo was divided into 3 provinces, namely South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan. Then, on May 23, 1957, officially formed the province of Central Kalimantan, formerly known as Local Dayak Besar as a form of secession of South Kalimantan, stood to be the 17th province independent.

Geography.Borneo Island is located on the north island of Java, east of the Straits of Melaka, west of the island of Sulawesi and the southern Philippines. Size of Borneo island is 743,330 km ².

Borneo Island is surrounded by South China Sea in the west and north-west, the Sulu Sea in the north-east, the Celebes Sea and Makassar Strait in the east and the Java Sea and the Strait of Karimata in the south.

Mount Kinabalu (4095 m) located in Sabah, Malaysia is the highest location in Kalimantan.

The longest rivers are the Kapuas River in Borneo (1143 km) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Barito River (880 km) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, Mahakam River (980 km) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, chopped River (562.5 km ) in Sarawak, Malaysia.

In Borneo there are some areas of Indonesia and Malaysia. Territory Brunei all situated in the island.Indonesia

Indonesian region of Borneo is divided into four provinces:

Central Kalimantan capital of Palangkaraya

East Kalimantan capital of Samarinda

South Kalimantan capital of Banjarmasin

West Kalimantan capital of Pontianak with

Countries and territories in the Fellowship of Malaysia Borneo:



Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (off the coast of Sabah)

Indigenous languages ​​in the Austronesian languages ​​of Borneo is a Malayo-Polynesian family.